Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering
Current research interests are the development and evaluation of improved medical ultrasound image quality for applications in cardiology, radiology and obstetrics. Advances in image quality result from improvements in the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of diagnostic ultrasound scanners through novel signal processing techniques and improved design of ultrasound transducers.
One current project includes the development of two-dimensional phased array transducers for application in the Duke 3-D ultrasound scanner in these N x N, "checkerboard'' arrays are used to steer the ultrasound beam in both the azimuth and elevation directions within the patient's body to interrogate a pyramidal shaped object and produce a volumetric scan at high speeds without moving the transducer.
Recently developed transducers include 100 x 100 = 10,000 element arrays operating at 5-10 MHz. Each square element is only 0.2 mm on a side. In addition, we have developed such 2D arrays to fit inside of intra-cardiac catheters only 2 mm in diameter for guidance of cardiac interventional procedures such as mapping and ablation of atrial fibrillation. Processing technologies include the use of micro electronic packaging and fabrication techniques to develop higher frequency arrays up to 20 MHz with improved resolution and smaller element sizes down to 0.05 mm.
Appointments and Affiliations
- Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering
- Office Location: 1427 Fciemas, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708
- Office Phone: (919) 660-5160
- Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
- B.A. Thomas More College, 1967
- M.S. Iowa State University, 1969
- Ph.D. Duke University, 1975
Research InterestsDevelopment and evaluation of improved medical ultrasound image quality for applications in cardiology, radiology and obstetrics. Advances in image quality result from improvements in the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of diagnostic ultrasound scanners through novel signal processing techniques and improved design of ultrasound transducers.
- Smith, Stephen W., Paul Gardea, Vivek Patel, Stephen J. Douglas, and Patrick D. Wolf. “Double Ring Array Catheter for In Vivo Real-Time 3D Ultrasound.” Ultrasonic Imaging 36, no. 3 (July 2014): 167–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/0161734614523738.
- Patel, Vivek, Jeremy J. Dahl, David P. Bradway, Joshua R. Doherty, Seung Yun Lee, and Stephen W. Smith. “Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) on an IVUS circular array.” Ultrasonic Imaging 36, no. 2 (April 2014): 98–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/0161734613511595.
- Lindsey, Brooks D., Heather A. Nicoletto, Ellen R. Bennett, Daniel T. Laskowitz, and Stephen W. Smith. “3-D transcranial ultrasound imaging with bilateral phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches: a pilot human study with microbubble contrast enhancement.” Ultrasound Med Biol 40, no. 1 (January 2014): 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.09.006.
- Lindsey, Brooks D., and Stephen W. Smith. “Refraction correction in 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging 36, no. 1 (January 2014): 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/0161734613510287.
- Patel, V., J. J. Dahl, D. P. Bradway, J. R. Doherty, and S. W. Smith. “Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging on an IVUS circular array.” In IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS, 773–76, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2013.0199.