Cynthia Ann Toth

Joseph A.C. Wadsworth Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Dr. Toth specializes in the evaluation and surgical treatment of vitreoretinal diseases in infants, children and adults, and in novel research resulting in the clinical application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in surgery and at the bedside. Her clinical interests and skills include the surgical treatment of macular diseases (such as, macular hole, epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction), retinal detachment, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). 

Dr. Toth is a world expert in retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pioneered both the first use of a research hand-held spectral domain OCT system for infant examination and the first intraoperative OCT-guided ophthalmic surgical system. For infants and children, Dr. Toth's multidisciplinary team has demonstrated novel eye findings that are visible only with OCT imaging and that are often associated with brain disease or challenges of brain development. In surgery, Dr. Toth performed the world's first intraoperative OCT imaging and the first swept-source OCT imaging with heads-up display during retinal surgery. With colleagues in the Duke Eye Center and in Biomedical Engineering, she perfecting such techniques. She has been repeatedly honored among the Best Doctors in America.

Dr. Toth is also professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering in the Pratt School of Engineering. Her primary research interests are in translational research and early-application clinical trials with a focus on novel retinal imaging with spectral domain and swept source optical coherence tomography (SD and SSOCT). Dr. Toth's Laboratory, the Duke Advanced Research in Spectral Domain/Swept Source OCT Imaging (DARSI) Laboratory centers on improving early diagnostic methods, imaging biomarkers and therapies for both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and for retinal diseases in children. Sina Farsiu, PhD, has collaborated to provide advanced image processing for OCT with in the DARSI Laboratory. In collaboration with Joseph Izatt, PhD  in Biomedical Engineering, the DARSI team is currently applying OCT to the diagnosis and care of retinal diseases and especially in microsurgery in adults and in children in several studies including NIH funded investigations. 

Dr. Toth was also co-founder and has been the Director of Grading for OCT for the Duke Reading Center and has designed and directed OCT analysis for numerous multicenter clinical trials including the Comparisons of AMD Treatment Trials (CATT). The Duke Reading Center provides support in training, data acquisition, and grading for multicenter clinical trials utilizing optical coherence tomography as an outcome measure.

Dr. Toth chaired the multicenter Age Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary SDOCT (A2ASDOCT) Study and has participated as site PI in the AREDS2. She also led studies of macular translocation surgery (MT360) for patients with severe AMD, along with co-investigator Dr. Sharon Freedman. Macular translocation surgery was a salvage treatment for AMD patients who lost vision due to neovascular AMD, prior to the current era of anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor treatments. The surgery resulted in an auto-transplant of the retina, isolating the retina from the underlying choroidal and retinal pigment epithelial pathology. Imaging and retinal function data from those studies have contributed to teasing out events in the macula related to vision loss.

Learn More about the Toth-DARSI Lab

Appointments and Affiliations

  • Joseph A.C. Wadsworth Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology
  • Professor of Ophthalmology
  • Vice-Chair of Clinical Research
  • Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Contact Information

  • Office Location: Duke Eye Center, Hudson Bldg., 2351 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705
  • Office Phone: (919) 684-5631
  • Email Address: cynthia.toth@duke.edu

Education

  • M.D. Drexel University, 1983
  • Geisinger Medical Center, 1987
  • University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 1991

In the News

Representative Publications

  • Maldonado, Ramiro S., and Cynthia A. Toth. “Optical coherence tomography in retinopathy of prematurity: looking beyond the vessels.” Clin Perinatol 40, no. 2 (June 2013): 271–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2013.02.007.
  • Mettu, Priyatham S., Neeru Sarin, Sandra S. Stinnett, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Recovery of the neurosensory retina after macular translocation surgery is independent of preoperative macular sensitivity in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.” Retina 31, no. 8 (September 2011): 1637–49. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e31821800e0.
  • Lee, Annie C., Ramiro S. Maldonado, Neeru Sarin, Rachelle V. O’Connell, David K. Wallace, Sharon F. Freedman, Michael Cotten, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity.” Retina 31, no. 8 (September 2011): 1470–82. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e31821dfa6d.
  • Ehlers, Justis P., Yuankai K. Tao, Sina Farsiu, Ramiro Maldonado, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Integration of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system into a surgical microscope for intraoperative imaging.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52, no. 6 (May 16, 2011): 3153–59. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6720.
  • Maldonado, Ramiro S., Sharon F. Freedman, C Michael Cotten, Jeffrey M. Ferranti, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Reversible retinal edema in an infant with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure.” J Aapos 15, no. 1 (February 2011): 91–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.11.016.
  • Day, Shelley, Ramiro S. Maldonado, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Preretinal and intraretinal exudates in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.” Retina 31, no. 1 (January 2011): 190–91. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e3182019c04.
  • Ehlers, Justis P., Ramiro Maldonado, Neeru Sarin, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Treatment of non-age-related macular degeneration submacular diseases with macular translocation surgery.” Retina 31, no. 7 (2011): 1337–46. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e31820668cf.
  • Ehlers, Justis P., Preeya K. Gupta, Sina Farsiu, Ramiro Maldonado, Terry Kim, Cynthia A. Toth, and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya. “Evaluation of contrast agents for enhanced visualization in optical coherence tomography.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51, no. 12 (December 2010): 6614–19. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6195.
  • Tao, Yuankai K., Justis P. Ehlers, Cynthia A. Toth, and Joseph A. Izatt. “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery.” Opt Lett 35, no. 20 (October 15, 2010): 3315–17. https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.35.003315.
  • Jain, Nieraj, Sina Farsiu, Aziz A. Khanifar, Srilaxmi Bearelly, R Theodore Smith, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Quantitative comparison of drusen segmented on SD-OCT versus drusen delineated on color fundus photographs.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51, no. 10 (October 2010): 4875–83. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-4962.
  • Robinson, M Dirk, Cynthia A. Toth, Joseph Y. Lo, and Sina Farsiu. “Efficient fourier-wavelet super-resolution.” Ieee Trans Image Process 19, no. 10 (October 2010): 2669–81. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2010.2050107.
  • Chiu, Stephanie J., Xiao T. Li, Peter Nicholas, Cynthia A. Toth, Joseph A. Izatt, and Sina Farsiu. “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation.” Opt Express 18, no. 18 (August 30, 2010): 19413–28. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.019413.
  • Maldonado, Ramiro S., Joseph A. Izatt, Neeru Sarin, David K. Wallace, Sharon Freedman, C Michael Cotten, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51, no. 5 (May 2010): 2678–85. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-4403.
  • Chavala, Sai H., Sina Farsiu, Ramiro Maldonado, David K. Wallace, Sharon F. Freedman, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging.” Ophthalmology 116, no. 12 (December 2009): 2448–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.003.
  • Ronan, Shawn M., Khanh-Nhat Tran-Viet, Erica L. Burner, Ravikanth Metlapally, Cynthia A. Toth, and Terri L. Young. “Mutational hot spot potential of a novel base pair mutation of the CSPG2 gene in a family with Wagner syndrome.” Arch Ophthalmol 127, no. 11 (November 2009): 1511–19. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.273.
  • Bearelly, Srilaxmi, Felix Y. Chau, Anjum Koreishi, Sandra S. Stinnett, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of geographic atrophy margins.” Ophthalmology 116, no. 9 (September 2009): 1762–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.04.015.
  • Brown, Ninita H., Anjum F. Koreishi, Michelle McCall, Joseph A. Izatt, Catherine Bowes Rickman, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Developing SDOCT to assess donor human eyes prior to tissue sectioning for research.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 247, no. 8 (August 2009): 1069–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-009-1044-3.
  • Schuman, Stefanie G., Anjum F. Koreishi, Sina Farsiu, Sin-ho Jung, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Photoreceptor layer thinning over drusen in eyes with age-related macular degeneration imaged in vivo with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.” Ophthalmology 116, no. 3 (March 2009): 488-496.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.10.006.
  • Scott, Adrienne W., Sina Farsiu, Laura B. Enyedi, David K. Wallace, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device.” Am J Ophthalmol 147, no. 2 (February 2009): 364-373.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2008.08.010.
  • Chong, Gabriel T., Sina Farsiu, Sharon F. Freedman, Neeru Sarin, Anjum F. Koreishi, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Abnormal foveal morphology in ocular albinism imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.” Arch Ophthalmol 127, no. 1 (January 2009): 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.550.
  • Dayani, Pouya N., Ramiro Maldonado, Sina Farsiu, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Intraoperative use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging in macular surgery.” Retina 29, no. 10 (2009): 1457–68. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181b266bc.
  • Khanifar, Aziz A., Anjum F. Koreishi, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Drusen ultrastructure imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography in age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 115, no. 11 (November 2008): 1883–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.04.041.
  • Stopa, Marcin, Bradley A. Bower, Emily Davies, Joseph A. Izatt, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies.” Retina 28, no. 2 (February 2008): 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181567798.
  • Holgado, Sandra, Cynthia A. Toth, and Sharon F. Freedman. “Quantifying vertical angle kappa after macular translocation surgery: a new use for the synoptophore.” Strabismus 16, no. 4 (2008): 139–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/09273970802505136.
  • Zhang, Nanfei, Greg C. Hoffmeyer, Ellen S. Young, Russell E. Burns, Katrina P. Winter, Sandra S. Stinnett, Cynthia A. Toth, and Glenn J. Jaffe. “Optical coherence tomography reader agreement in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.” Am J Ophthalmol 144, no. 1 (July 2007): 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2007.03.056.
  • Holgado, Sandra, Cynthia A. Toth, and Sharon F. Freedman. “Fixation switch and diplopia after full macular translocation surgery.” J Aapos 11, no. 2 (April 2007): 114–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2006.10.008.
  • Postel, Eric A., Anita Agarwal, Jennifer Caldwell, Paul Gallins, Cynthia Toth, Silke Schmidt, William K. Scott, Michael A. Hauser, Jonathan L. Haines, and Margaret A. Pericak-Vance. “Complement factor H increases risk for atrophic age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 113, no. 9 (September 2006): 1504–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.02.049.
  • Grossniklaus, Hans E., David J. Wilson, Susan B. Bressler, Neil M. Bressler, Cynthia A. Toth, W Richard Green, and Päivi Miskala. “Clinicopathologic studies of eyes that were obtained postmortem from four patients who were enrolled in the submacular surgery trials: SST Report No. 16.” Am J Ophthalmol 141, no. 1 (January 2006): 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2005.07.076.
  • Holgado, Sandra, Laura B. Enyedi, Cynthia A. Toth, and Sharon F. Freedman. “Extraocular muscle surgery for extorsion after macular translocation surgery new surgical technique and clinical management.” Ophthalmology 113, no. 1 (January 2006): 63–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.09.022.
  • Toth, Cynthia A. “Macular degeneration: the latest in current surgical management.” Retina 26, no. 6 Suppl (2006): S21–25. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.iae.0000236452.77898.08.
  • Stopa, Marcin, and Cynthia A. Toth. “A method to free retina and vitreous from intraoperative incarceration in the sclerotomy.” Retina 26, no. 9 (2006): 1070–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.iae.0000247195.28648.eb.
  • Malek, G., L. V. Johnson, B. E. Mace, P. Saloupis, D. E. Schmechel, D. W. Rickman, C. A. Toth, P. M. Sullivan, and C. Bowes Rickman. “Apolipoprotein E allele-dependent pathogenesis: a model for age-related retinal degeneration.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, no. 33 (August 16, 2005): 11900–905. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0503015102.
  • Cahill, Mark T., Prithvi Mruthyunjaya, Catherine Bowes Rickman, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Recurrence of retinal pigment epithelial changes after macular translocation with 360 degrees peripheral retinectomy for geographic atrophy.” Arch Ophthalmol 123, no. 7 (July 2005): 935–38. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.123.7.935.
  • Grossniklaus, Hans E., Päivi H. Miskala, W Richard Green, Susan B. Bressler, Barbara S. Hawkins, Cynthia Toth, David J. Wilson, and Neil M. Bressler. “Histopathologic and ultrastructural features of surgically excised subfoveal choroidal neovascular lesions: submacular surgery trials report no. 7.” Arch Ophthalmol 123, no. 7 (July 2005): 914–21. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.123.7.914.
  • Cahill, Mark T., Avie D. Banks, Sandra S. Stinnett, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Vision-related quality of life in patients with bilateral severe age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 112, no. 1 (January 2005): 152–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.06.036.
  • Cahill, Mark T., Sandra S. Stinnett, Avie D. Banks, Sharon F. Freedman, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Quality of life after macular translocation with 360 degrees peripheral retinectomy for age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 112, no. 1 (January 2005): 144–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.06.035.
  • Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi, Sandra S. Stinnett, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Impact of fluorescein angiographic characteristics of macular lesions on outcomes after macular translocation 360 degree surgery in eyes with age-related macular degeneration.” Retina 25, no. 5 (2005): 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006982-200507000-00010.
  • Hawkins, Barbara S., Neil M. Bressler, Susan B. Bressler, Frederick H. Davidorf, John C. Hoskins, Marta J. Marsh, Päivi H. Miskala, et al. “Surgical removal vs observation for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, either associated with the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome or idiopathic: I. Ophthalmic findings from a randomized clinical trial: Submacular Surgery Trials (SST) Group H Trial: SST Report No. 9.” Arch Ophthalmol 122, no. 11 (November 2004): 1597–1611. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.122.11.1597.
  • Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi, Sandra S. Stinnett, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Change in visual function after macular translocation with 360 degrees retinectomy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 111, no. 9 (September 2004): 1715–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.03.022.
  • Czajka, Marcin P., Thomas J. Cummings, Brooks W. McCuen, Cynthia A. Toth, Hoang Nguyen, and Sharon Fekrat. “Radial optic neurotomy in the porcine eye without retinal vein occlusion.” Arch Ophthalmol 122, no. 8 (August 2004): 1185–89. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.122.8.1185.
  • Toth, Cynthia A., Deborah J. Lapolice, Avie D. Banks, and Sandra S. Stinnett. “Improvement in near visual function after macular translocation surgery with 360-degree peripheral retinectomy.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 242, no. 7 (July 2004): 541–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-004-0867-1.
  • Roach, William P., Clarence P. Cain, Drew G. Narayan, Gary D. Noojin, Stephen A. Boppart, Reginald Birngruber, James G. Fujimoto, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.” J Biomed Opt 9, no. 6 (2004): 1288–96. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1805554.
  • Park, Carl H., and Cynthia A. Toth. “Macular translocation surgery with 360-degree peripheral retinectomy following ocular photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization.” Am J Ophthalmol 136, no. 5 (November 2003): 830–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(03)00723-2.
  • Freedman, Sharon F., Sandra Holgado, Laura B. Enyedi, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Management of ocular torsion and diplopia after macular translocation for age-related macular degeneration: prospective clinical study.” Am J Ophthalmol 136, no. 4 (October 2003): 640–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(03)00334-9.
  • Freedman, Sharon F., Matthew D. Gearinger, Laura B. Enyedi, Sandra Holgado, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Measurement of ocular torsion after macular translocation: disc fovea angle and Maddox rod.” J Aapos 7, no. 2 (April 2003): 103–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/mpa.2003.S1091853103000107.
  • Cahill, Mark T., Sharon F. Freedman, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Macular translocation with 360 degrees peripheral retinectomy for geographic atrophy.” Arch Ophthalmol 121, no. 1 (January 2003): 132–33. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.121.1.132.
  • Oliveira, Leonardo B., Carsten H. Meyer, Janardan Kumar, Misako Tatebayashi, Cynthia A. Toth, Fulton Wong, David L. Epstein, and Brooks W. McCuen. “RGD peptide-assisted vitrectomy to facilitate induction of a posterior vitreous detachment: a new principle in pharmacological vitreolysis.” Curr Eye Res 25, no. 6 (December 2002): 333–40. https://doi.org/10.1076/ceyr.25.6.333.14234.
  • Negron, Laura A., Francesco Viola, Eric P. Black, Cynthia A. Toth, and William F. Walker. “Development and characterization of a vitreous mimicking material for radiation force imaging.” Ieee Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 49, no. 11 (November 2002): 1543–51. https://doi.org/10.1109/tuffc.2002.1049736.
  • Lai, James C., Deborah J. Lapolice, Sandra S. Stinnett, Carsten H. Meyer, Luz M. Arieu, Melissa A. Keller, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Visual outcomes following macular translocation with 360-degree peripheral retinectomy.” Arch Ophthalmol 120, no. 10 (October 2002): 1317–24. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.120.10.1317.
  • Ting, T Daniel, Mila Oh, Terry A. Cox, Carsten H. Meyer, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Decreased visual acuity associated with cystoid macular edema in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.” Arch Ophthalmol 120, no. 6 (June 2002): 731–37. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.120.6.731.
  • Freedman, Sharon F., Maria Rojas, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Strabismus surgery for large-angle cyclotorsion after macular translocation surgery.” J Aapos 6, no. 3 (June 2002): 154–62. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpa.2002.122363.
  • Cain, Clarence P., Cynthia A. Toth, Gary D. Noojin, David J. Stolarski, Robert J. Thomas, and Benjamin A. Rockwell. “Thresholds for retinal injury from multiple near-infrared ultrashort laser pulses.” Health Phys 82, no. 6 (June 2002): 855–62. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200206000-00014.
  • Mostafavi, Ramin, Sharon Fekrat, Cynthia A. Toth, and Terry Kim. “LASIK and vitreous pathology after LASIK.” Ophthalmology, April 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(02)00996-x.
  • Walton, Kelly A., Carsten H. Meyer, Curtis J. Harkrider, Terry A. Cox, and Cynthia A. Toth. “Age-related changes in vitreous mobility as measured by video B scan ultrasound.” Exp Eye Res 74, no. 2 (February 2002): 173–80. https://doi.org/10.1006/exer.2001.1136.
  • Thomas, Robert J., Gary D. Noojin, David J. Stolarski, Rebecca T. Hall, Clarence P. Cain, Cynthia A. Toth, and Benjamin A. Rockwell. “A comparative study of retinal effects from continuous wave and femtosecond mode-locked lasers.” Lasers Surg Med 31, no. 1 (2002): 9–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.10067.
  • Benner, J. D., C. H. Meyer, B. L. Shirkey, and C. A. Toth. “Macular translocation with radial scleral ouffolding: experimental studies and initial human results.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239, no. 11 (November 2001): 815–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004170100339.
  • Kim, T., S. Krishnasamy, C. H. Meyer, and C. A. Toth. “Induced corneal astigmatism after macular translocation surgery with scleral infolding.” Ophthalmology 108, no. 7 (July 2001): 1203–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(01)00578-4.
  • Meyer, C. H., and C. A. Toth. “Retinal pigment epithelial tear with vitreomacular attachment: a novel pathogenic feature.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239, no. 5 (June 2001): 325–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004170100259.
  • Au Eong, K. G., D. J. Pieramici, G. Y. Fujii, E. W. Ng, M. S. Humayun, M. Maia, J. B. Harlan, et al. “Macular translocation: unifying concepts, terminology, and classification.” Am J Ophthalmol 131, no. 2 (February 2001): 244–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00788-1.
  • Haupert, C. L., B. W. McCuen, G. J. Jaffe, E. R. Steuer, T. A. Cox, C. A. Toth, S. Fekrat, and E. A. Postel. “Pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator, and fluid-gas exchange for displacement of thick submacular hemorrhage in age-related macular degeneration.” Am J Ophthalmol 131, no. 2 (February 2001): 208–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00734-0.
  • Toth, C. A., E. K. Chiu, K. P. Winter, M. N. McCall, S. F. Bailey, C. J. Harkrider, and S. Hauger. “In-vivo response to free electron laser incision of the rabbit cornea.” Lasers Surg Med 29, no. 1 (2001): 44–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.1085.
  • Deramo, V. A., C. H. Meyer, and C. A. Toth. “Successful macular translocation with temporary scleral infolding using absorbable sture.” Retina 21, no. 4 (2001): 304–11. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006982-200108000-00002.
  • Toth, C. A., and S. F. Freedman. “Macular translocation with 360-degree peripheral retinectomy impact of technique and surgical experience on visual outcomes.” Retina 21, no. 4 (2001): 293–303. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006982-200108000-00001.
  • Cain, C. P., C. A. Toth, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, V. Carothers, D. J. Stolarski, and B. A. Rockwell. “Comparison of macular versus paramacular retinal sensitivity to femtosecond laser pulses.” J Biomed Opt 5, no. 3 (July 2000): 315–20. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.430002.
  • Freedman, S. F., J. H. Seaber, E. G. Buckley, L. B. Enyedi, and C. A. Toth. “Combined superior oblique muscle recession and inferior oblique muscle advancement and transposition for cyclotorsion associated with macular translocation surgery.” J Aapos 4, no. 2 (April 2000): 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpa.2000.102925.
  • Jumper, J. M., R. P. Gallemore, B. W. McCuen, and C. A. Toth. “Features of macular hole closure in the early postoperative period using optical coherence tomography.” Retina 20, no. 3 (2000): 232–37.
  • Jumper, J. M., S. N. Embabi, C. A. Toth, I. I. McCuen BW, and D. L. Hatchell. “Electron immunocytochemical analysis of posterior hyaloid associated with diabetic macular edema.” Retina 20, no. 1 (2000): 63–68. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006982-200001000-00012.
  • Gallemore, R. P., J. M. Jumper, B. W. McCuen, G. J. Jaffe, E. A. Postel, and C. A. Toth. “Diagnosis of vitreoretinal adhesions in macular disease with optical coherence tomography.” Retina 20, no. 2 (2000): 115–20.
  • Cain, C. P., C. A. Toth, G. D. Noojin, V. Carothers, D. J. Stolarski, and B. A. Rockwell. “Thresholds for visible lesions in the primate eye produced by ultrashort near-infrared laser pulses.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40, no. 10 (September 1999): 2343–49.
  • Rockwell, B. A., D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, et al. “Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety.” J Laser Appl 11, no. 1 (February 1999): 42–44. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.521879.
  • De La Paz, M. A., Y. Itoh, C. A. Toth, and H. Nagase. “Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in human vitreous.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39, no. 7 (June 1998): 1256–60.
  • Hatchell, D. L., S. N. Embabi, T. Maeno, P. Saloupis, G. Olson, R. D. Braun, and C. A. Toth. “Transplantation of feline islets of Langerhans in the subretinal space of cat eyes.” Transplant Proc 30, no. 2 (March 1998): 593–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-1345(97)01421-8.
  • Toth, C. A., D. G. Narayan, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, R. Birngruber, C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, and W. P. Roach. “A comparison of retinal morphology viewed by optical coherence tomography and by light microscopy.” Arch Ophthalmol 115, no. 11 (November 1997): 1425–28. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1997.01100160595012.
  • Toth, C. A., D. G. Narayan, C. P. Cain, G. D. Noojin, K. P. Winter, B. A. Rockwell, and W. P. Roach. “Pathology of macular lesions from subnanosecond pulses of visible laser energy.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, no. 11 (October 1997): 2204–13.
  • Hammer, D. X., G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, and W. P. Roach. “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown.” Appl Opt 36, no. 7 (March 1, 1997): 1684–93. https://doi.org/10.1364/ao.36.001684.
  • Mittra, R. A., S. Dev, M. A. Nasir, and C. A. Toth. “Recombinant hirudin prevents postoperative fibrin formation after experimental cataract surgery.” Ophthalmology 104, no. 3 (March 1997): 558–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(97)30275-9.
  • Toth, C. A., R. Birngruber, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. D. DiCarlo, E. A. Swanson, et al. “Argon laser retinal lesions evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography.” Am J Ophthalmol 123, no. 2 (February 1997): 188–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(14)71035-9.
  • Toth, C. A., M. A. Nasir, C. L. Ho, and R. A. Mittra. “Intraocular injection of recombinant hirudin to prevent experimental postoperative fibrin.” Retina 17, no. 4 (1997): 315–20. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006982-199707000-00007.
  • Cain, C. P., C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, and W. P. Roach. “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 234 Suppl 1 (August 1996): S28–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02343045.
  • Nasir, M. A., C. A. Toth, and R. A. Mittra. “Recombinant hirudin for prevention of experimental postoperative intraocular fibrin.” Am J Ophthalmol 121, no. 5 (May 1996): 554–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(14)75430-3.
  • MacCumber, M. W., B. W. McCuen, C. A. Toth, P. J. Ferrone, and G. J. Jaffe. “Tissue plasminogen activator for preserving inferior peripheral iridectomy patency in eyes with silicone oil.” Ophthalmology 103, no. 2 (February 1996): 269–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(96)30705-7.
  • Toth, C. A., C. P. Cain, C. D. Stein, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, J. A. Zuclich, and W. P. Roach. “Retinal effects of ultrashort laser pulses in the rabbit eye.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36, no. 9 (August 1995): 1910–17.
  • Hatchell, D. L., C. A. Toth, C. A. Barden, and P. Saloupis. “Diabetic retinopathy in a cat.” Experimental Eye Research, May 1995. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0014-4835(05)80074-0.
  • Cain, C. P., C. A. Toth, C. D. DiCarlo, C. D. Stein, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and W. P. Roach. “Visible retinal lesions from ultrashort laser pulses in the primate eye.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36, no. 5 (April 1995): 879–88.
  • Toth, C. A., A. C. Pasquale, and D. F. Graichen. “Clinicopathologic correlation of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial tears with choroidal neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration.” Ophthalmology 102, no. 2 (February 1995): 272–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(95)31045-7.
  • Rockwell, B. A., W. P. Roach, M. E. Rogers, M. W. Mayo, C. A. Toth, C. P. Cain, and G. D. Noojin. “Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor.” Opt Lett 18, no. 21 (November 1, 1993): 1792–94. https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.18.001792.
  • Benner, J. D., M. Magliocco, C. A. Toth, L. M. Hjelmeland, M. B. Landers, and L. S. Morse. “A glass micropipette holder for ophthalmic surgical procedures.” Am J Ophthalmol 116, no. 4 (October 15, 1993): 511–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(14)71419-9.
  • Toth, C. A., and M. B. Landers. “A new wide-field temporary keratoprosthesis.” Retina, 1993.
  • Benner, J. D., M. T. Magliocco, C. A. Toth, A. Hay, L. M. Hjelmeland, M. B. Landers, and L. S. Morse. “Stainless steel micropipette for subretinal surgery.” Am J Ophthalmol, June 15, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(14)74803-2.
  • Hjelmeland, L. M., M. W. Stewart, J. Li, C. A. Toth, M. S. Burns, and M. B. Landers. “An experimental model of ectropion uveae and iris neovascularization in the cat.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33, no. 5 (April 1992): 1796–1803.
  • Toth, C. A., J. D. Benner, L. M. Hjelmeland, M. B. Landers, and L. S. Morse. “Ultramicrosurgical removal of subretinal hemorrhage in cats.” Am J Ophthalmol 113, no. 2 (February 15, 1992): 175–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(14)71530-2.
  • Landers, M. B., C. A. Toth, H. C. Semple, and L. S. Morse. “Treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with argon laser photocoagulation.” Arch Ophthalmol 110, no. 1 (January 1992): 44–47. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1992.01080130046024.
  • Hjelmeland, L. M., J. W. Li, C. A. Toth, and M. B. Landers. “Antifibrotic and uveitogenic properties of gamma interferon in the rabbit eye.” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 230, no. 1 (1992): 84–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00166768.
  • Benner, J. D., L. S. Morse, C. A. Toth, M. B. Landers, and L. M. Hjelmeland. “Evaluation of a commercial recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator preparation in the subretinal space of the cat.” Arch Ophthalmol 109, no. 12 (December 1991): 1731–36. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1991.01080120115039.
  • Toth, C. A., L. S. Morse, L. M. Hjelmeland, and M. B. Landers. “Fibrin directs early retinal damage after experimental subretinal hemorrhage.” Arch Ophthalmol 109, no. 5 (May 1991): 723–29. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1991.01080050139046.